Looking Back on the Butterflies and Moths of an Old Northamptonshire Woodland

by J. W. Ward.

Prior to the middle ages much of the countryside between Stamford and Oxford was covered by continuous woodland.  As time went by, large areas were gradually cleared to form villages, farmland and parkland.  The remaining woodlands eventually became sufficiently separated to be accorded their own identities and those that were included in an area of some 200 square miles in north east Northamptonshire were designated a Royal Hunting Forest by William the Conqueror; this became known as the Rockingham Forest.  Some of these constituent native woodland remnants still exist and are called ancient woodlands that abound with wildlife.  One such woodland, Weekley Hall Wood, situated less than a mile north of Kettering at grid reference SP875821, is owned and commercially managed for timber and pheasant rearing by Boughton Estates.  The wood originally occupied an area of about 200 acres and was a typical Rockingham Forest damp wood lying on clay, primarily of ash, field maple, hazel and oak.

Map of Kettering and District (441Kb)

Due to its proximity to Kettering it was a favourite wood for local naturalists particularly of the Kettering and District Natural History Society (K. & D. N. H. S. see references).  Although privately owned, special permits for access were granted and it was extensively recorded for butterflies and moths from around the middle of the 19th century until the early 1950's when recording activity gradually decreased.   The wood is specifically mentioned in the Northamptonshire Victoria County History (Published in 1902) and described along with Geddington Chase as the great oak woods in the neighbourhood of Kettering.  The earliest records that I hold date from the 1850's and seem to give rise to some of the V.C.H. butterfly and moth entries.  These early records were published in the Entomologists Weekly Intelligencer in the late 1850's in several articles by William Sturgess of Kettering.  They detailed his captures of woodland species near to and in the neighbourhood of Kettering.  Although Weekley Hall Wood is not specifically mentioned there are sufficient clues to remove any doubts that this is the wood that he was visiting.  The wood is much nearer to Kettering than Geddington Chase, which usually seems to be identified in earlier reports, and I do hold other literature where “near Kettering,” has a manuscript note, “Weekley Hall Wood,” or the record can be traced back to this source.  In the times of almost a century and a half ago, there would undoubtedly have been access restrictions that may have made it undiplomatic to be too specific as to the locality, even if concessionary access had been granted.  A managed wood within easy walking distance of the town must have been a Mecca for unwelcome visitors and would have been heavily policed by keepers with high penalties for trespass.  I have included a copy of the 1 inch to 1 mile Ordinance Survey map dated 1913 showing how the area was around the turn of the last century. 


In later years much effort went into seeking out the more elusive insects.  Weekly meetings were arranged and in some years the wood was surveyed almost continuously from early spring to late winter.  Specific trips were made by day for particular butterflies and at night mothing was conducted by sugaring and with acetylene and paraffin lamps.  A variety of other forms of fieldwork were employed, beating for larvae, pupa digging and the systematic working of tree trunks by day for resting moths.   All of this concerted effort translated itself into a butterfly and moth list that compared well in its day with any local and most national woodlands.


In the Kettering Society s report and summary of recording for 1945, the wood was regarded as being, “Not the happy hunting ground that it has been.”  It was said that although the ridings had been nicely cleared there were insufficient trees left to sustain the insect populations of former years.  It was also felt that the area would not remain a wood for much longer.  In common with other former Rockingham Forest woodlands the ground was rich in iron ore and in about 1950 permission was granted to Stewarts and Lloyds of Corby for opencast quarrying of the wood and surrounding fields.  This work was started in 1951 in the fields surrounding the wood and the old keepers cottage on the outskirts of the wood became derelict by the end of 1952.  By this time access had become more difficult and the wood was visited less frequently by recorders.  The quarrying of the woodland commenced in 1956 and continued until 1978 with limestone forming much of the later extraction (Tonks 1989).  After quarrying, the remaining semi natural ancient woodland had been depleted to some 12 acres.   Northamptonshire has lost approximately two thirds of its ancient woodland since the last war (Colston et al 1996).  Clearly this woodland features in the loss, but to put things into perspective, it only represents a small part of the area that has been lost over the whole county.


The old documented records and information that I hold provide a real insight as to how Weekley Hall Wood used to be for butterflies and moths and I have quoted selectively from these below.  The dates that I have quoted for the last record held are not necessarily when the species ceased to be present, but often when people stopped going to the site or did not visit when the insects were on the wing.  In general I have restricted my comments to the species that have disappeared from other sites locally and where possible I have given dates of the last grid square record held from the localities visited by the old Society members.  Many of the lost species are now regarded as of national conservation priority or concern.  


Some Lost Butterflies 


Chequered Skipper - Carterocephalus palaemon.  Present in Northamptonshire at Castor Hanglands in 1823 (South 1906), and near to Towcester in 1842 (Clark 1842), it was stated as having been taken very freely in the neighbourhood of Kettering in 1857 (Sturgess 1857).  By the mid 1890's the butterfly was still regarded as very local (Wallis 1880-), but by 1907 it was to be found in many woods from Yardley Chase to Farming Woods and was described as locally abundant (Wallis1908-10).  The indications are that it increased its range around the turn of the 20th century but that it had colonized Weekley Hall Wood by about 1850.  The first specific record that I hold for the wood was in 1917; it was then well recorded there until the 1960's, the last record that I have being in 1964.  As in other local woods its presence was taken for granted and due to its rapid demise it was hardly missed before it was gone.  Of all the butterflies and moths that have been lost to the county this is probably the most significant.  By the turn of the 20th century the English populations of the butterfly were confined to a few counties in the east Midlands with the highest in the north eastern parts of Northamptonshire (Emmet & Heath 1990).  It was a positive enhancement to our local woodland scene with its distinctive behaviour and colouring, this is very well portrayed by a comment in an article on the butterfly by R. E. M. Pilcher in which he says, “Castor Hanglands in the old days, when almost every sunny patch seemed to be alive with this insect, flying rapidly from flower to flower (generally Ajuga reptans, Bugle), or alighting on a blade of grass with its wings expanded to the sun; dashing off to drive away an intruder or making mock battles with a rival, and settling again for a brief sun-bathe; a fussy little insect, always busy about something, a flash of chocolate and gold against the sun-lit backcloth of green.”  In this article written in the 1960's Mr. Pilcher says that “An insect in no apparent danger of extinction, but well worth some trouble to maintain in good numbers.”  (Pilcher 1961-)

Other last dated society records:-  Collyweston (TF00) 1958, Castor Hanglands (TF10) 1974, Gretton (SP89) 1941, Bangrave Wood (SP99) 1958, Bedford Purlieus (TL09) 1957, Hermitage Wood (SP78) 1947, Geddington Chase (SP98) 1964, Barnwell Wold (TL08) 1947, Gib Wood (SP87) 1944, Cranford Wood (SP97) 1960 and Sywell Wood (SP86) 1964. 

Brown Hairstreak Thecla betulae.  This always seems to have been the least common of the five hairstreaks that have occurred in the wood and for that matter also locally.  The only record that I have been able to trace is from 1923.

Other last dated society records:-  Helpston Heath (TF10) 1956, Bedford Purlieus (TL09) 1942, Geddington Chase (SP98) 1921, Barnwell Wold (TL08) 1956, Hazel Beech Wood (SP77) 1940 and Thrapston (SP97) 1947.

Black Hairstreak – Satyrium pruni featured in a report in the Intelligencer of 1858.  “On the 19th inst I captured three dozen Pruni, flying round the flowers of the Wayfaring tree, Viburnum lantana.” (Sturgess 1858).  There was a tendency to suppress the localities of this species due to popularity with collectors, but it was certainly recorded again in the wood in 1947.  This butterfly is of course still present locally.

Duke of Burgundy Fritillary – Hamearis lucina.  Local with poor powers of dispersal forming small discreet colonies, this butterfly was present at Geddington Chase around the turn of the 20th century  (Wallis 1908-10).  It was not found at Weekley Hall Wood until 1944 where it occurred for a few years before it disappeared from the wood.  It is still hanging on in one Rockingham Forest locality.

Other last dated society records:-  Collyweston (TF00) 1958, Helpston Heath (TF10) 1957, Wakerley Wood (SP99) 1952, Brickhill Wood (SP98) 1940, Barnwell Wold (TL08) 1947, Broughton (SP87) 1946 and Sywell Wood (SP86) 1964.

Purple Emperor – Apatura iris.  This species is mentioned in an article by W. Sturgess in the Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer of 1859 detailing captures of a variety of the butterfly in 1857 and 1858 (Sturgess 1859).  In 1857 he also visits a larger wood near to Kettering and in the July of that year captures no less than 80 Purple Emperor butterflies by attracting them to carrion (Sturgess 1857).  Although he does not name the wood, it is clear that this is Geddington Chase.  In the year 1859 it was said that the species had been exceedingly rare, only seven having been netted in this neighbourhood (Sturgess 1859).  By the turn of the 20th century it was described as being of frequent occurrence in most large woods (Wallis 1880-).  There is a record of a butterfly being seen in Weekley Hall Wood near a dead mole in 1887 and a further record a few days later (Wallis 1880-).  I have been unable to find any subsequent records for the wood.  Generally speaking the species became extinct in the Rockingham Forest over 60 years ago, but some stock from Bernwood Forest was then successfully reintroduced to Fermyn Wood where it has spread to other suitable nearby woodland.

Large Tortoishell – Nymphalis polychlorus.  Included in the Weekly Intelligencer of 1859 in the list of captures near Kettering (Sturgess 1859).  Around the turn of the 20th century it was regarded as not common but generally distributed (Wallis 1880-).  There is a 1943 record of the butterfly at Weekley Hall Wood that was observed over a number of days.  The record is endorsed, “First time really identified since 1903.”  There are indications that this earlier butterfly was also seen at Weekley Hall Wood.

Other last dated society record:-  Geddington Chase (SP98) 1903 (Wallis 1908-10).

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary – Bolaria selene.   Always seen as more local than its congener and mainly southern in its distribution within the county, the butterfly was found in a number of places in this wood in 1934.  It was then recorded over the next decade or so before dying out.

Other last dated society records:-  Wakerley Wood (SP99) 1952 and Gib Wood (SP87) 1944.

Pearl-bordered Fritillary – Bolaria euphrosyne.  First mentioned in the Intelligencer of 1859 (Sturgess 1859), by the early part of the 20th century it was still regarded as common in most large woods (Wallis 1908-10).  The first specific mention that I have for Weekley Hall Wood is in 1917.  There are qualifying notes on its abundance over subsequent years.  In a 1920 report there is a note that, “during the last two or three years several members have interested themselves in endeavouring to reinstate the butterfly in the wood where it had become extinct.”  This reintroduction was a success and it was then seen in the wood over the next three decades or so, albeit in small numbers in some years.  

Other last dated society records:-  Helpston Heath (TF10) 1949, Gretton (SP89) 1939, Wakerley Wood (SP99) 1952, Bedford Purlieus (TL09) 1956, Titchmarsh Wood (SP98) 1947, Broughton (SP87) 1942 and Sywell Wood (SP86) 1946.

High Brown Fritillary - Argynnis adippe.  The only record that I have been able to trace from Weekley Hall Wood is from 1935.  Of the five violet feeding fritillaries that have occurred in the wood, this was the first species to contract its range locally.

Other last dated society records:-  Helpston Heath (TF10) 1943, Wakerley Wood (SP99) 1942, Bedford Purlieus (TL09) 1955, Lady Wood (SP98) 1939 and Barnwell Wold (TL08) 1942.

Dark Green Fritillary – Argynnis aglaja.  Although in this area much less of a wood loving insect than the other fritillaries it was recorded in the wood in the 1940's.  There are still infrequent sightings of butterflies locally, but the species is highly mobile and sometimes covers a large area away from its breeding site.

Silver-washed Fritillary – Argynnis paphia.  Another species mentioned in the 1859 Intelligencer report (Sturgess 1859).  By the turn of the 20th century it was regarded as common in most large woods (Wallis 1908-10).  The occurrence of the butterfly in Weekley Hall Wood varies between absent in some years in the 1920's to abundant in some years in the 1940's.  In 1920 it was regarded as nearly extinct in the wood and efforts were made to, “rehabilitate it.”  This was regarded as successful as very fair numbers were seen in 1921.  It then declined again only being recorded as singletons in 1922 and 1923; by 1927 the situation had worsened even further in that there was a great scarcity of fritillaries with no Silver-washed recorded in the county.  The butterfly was seen again in the wood in 1929 and then became more plentiful in the 1930's; a dozen were seen between 9th July and the 22nd July in 1934.  The butterfly was then present in the wood until at least the late 1940's, ultimately this population forming part of the decline of the species in the east Midlands.

Other last dated society records:-  Helpston Heath (TF10) 1958, Wakerley Wood (SP99) 1942, Bedford Purlieus (TL09) 1947, Geddington Chase (SP98) 1945, Barnwell Wold (TL08) 1945, Mawsley Wood (SP77) 1948, Hardwick Wood (SP87) 1943 and Sywell Wood (SP86) 1943.


The table below compares the overall butterfly species recorded from some of the better worked sites:-


 Comparative Record Totals of Butterflies Recorded from Local Sites


Site and National Grid Reference     Record Totals of Butterflies                                Notes

Bedford Purlieus (TL09)                                      44                           (Heath 1975) and (K.& D.N.H.S.).

Castor Hanglands (TF10)                                    46                           (Collier 1966), (Whitwell 1845)( B.R.C.).                                          

Geddington Chase (SP98)                                   40                           (K.& D.N.H.S.) and own field records.

Wakerley Wood (SP99)                                      41                           (K.& D.N.H.S.).

Weekley Hall Wood (SP88)                                45                           (K.& D.N.H.S.) and own field records.  


Some Lost Moths 


The Mocha – Cyclophora annulata.  Present at Geddington Chase in the early 1880's- (Wallis 1880-) and regarded as rather common around the turn of the 20th century (Wallis 1908-10).  The first record that I hold for Weekley Hall Wood is dated 1917.  It used to be seen during the day by jarring the bushes and continued to be recorded until the 1940's.  This is a nationally declining species that has not been seen in the county for many years.

Other last dated society records:-  Gretton (SP89) 1945 and Geddington Chase (SP98) 1934.

Striped Twin-spot Carpet – Nebula salicata.  Although regarded as more of a northern moth, this species was present locally until the 1940's.  It was recorded in the wood in 1938 and 1940. 

Autumn Green Carpet – Chloroclysta miata.  Described as common at gas lamps in the 1890's (Wallis 1880-), and regarded as rather common in the county during the early part of the 20th century (Wallis 1908-10), it was first specifically recorded in Weekley Hall Wood in 1925 and then again in the 1930's.  The species has not been seen in Northamptonshire for almost thirty years, however the closely related Red Green Carpet - Chloroclysta siterata that was historically the scarcer moth in the county has increased its range recently so there is hope the miata may recolonise.

Other last dated society records:-  Sutton Bassett (SP79) 1946, Gretton (SP89) 1937 and Bedford Purlieus (TL09) 1932.    

Cloaked Carpet – Euphyia biangulata.  Another species with very few Northamptonshire records, it was recorded in the wood in 1922 and 1932.

Other last dated society records:-  Kettering (SP88) 1941 and Geddington Chase (SP98) 1907 (Wallis 1908-10).

Lunar Thorn - Selenia lunularia.  Always a rare moth in the county with less than a dozen records over the years; it was recorded in the wood in 1919. 

Great Oak Beauty – Hypomecis roboraria.  This moth was something of a speciality of the wood and seems to have been searched for annually.  It used to be found sitting on tree trunks, although in 1919 one was taken at sugar.  The first record that I have is for 1887 when one was noted at rest on the trunk of a chestnut tree (Wallis 1880-).  In the 1890's it was described as occasional on tree trunks in the wood (Wallis 1880-).  It was stated to have had a good year in the wood in 1917 and continued to be recorded there until 1925.  Despite notes of subsequent searches for it, there are no further records.  This was also the year of the last record from Geddington Chase that had a similar record history for the moth.

Other last dated society record:-  Barnwell Wold (TL08) 1907 (Wallis 1908-10).

Broad-bordered Bee Hawk-moth – Hemaris fuciformis.  There is an entry in the Intelligencer for 1858  reporting the capture of half a dozen specimens of this moth flying around the flowers of Ragged-robin Lychnis flos-cuculi (Sturgess 1858).  Apart from a repeat record in 1859 (Sturgess 1859), there are no further records of the moth in the wood.

Other last dated society records:-  Wakerley Wood (SP99) 1955 and Geddington Chase (SP98) 1907 (Wallis 1908-10).

Double Line – Mythimna turca.  There are three Northamptonshire records of this woodland species; the last of these was in Weekley Hall Wood in 1951.  There is no doubt that it was breeding in the wood as the moth that was found was at rest, expanding its wings.

Other last dated society records:-  Geddington Chase (SP98) 1906 (Wallis 1908-10) and Sywell Wood (SP86) 1946.

Orange Upperwing – Jodia croceago.  This only Northamptonshire record of the moth was of a singleton taken at sugar in 1906 by E. F. Wallis.  The record is mentioned in his Lepidoptera of Northamptonshire and noted, “near Kettering Oct. 3. 1906.  Once only.”   There is a manuscript addition, “Weekley Hall Wood.” in my copy by F. A. Adams who must have obtained this further detail from Wallis.  This is confirmed in Wallis s early manuscript records where the locality is specifically given as Weekley Hall Wood.  The moth having been taken along with other autumn species including the rather similar Orange Sallow Xanthia citrago  on a sugaring trip to the wood.  This has always been an uncommon moth and currently is a cause of great conservation concern nationally.  The unquestionable expertise of the recorder coupled with the fact that it was taken alongside the only possible moth that it can be confused with to my mind precludes any question of misidentification.

Heart Moth – Dicycla oo.  Described as local but occasionally plentiful in 1907, with a dozen having been taken mostly at sugar in Geddington Chase ( Wallis 1908-10).  The species does not seem to have been seen again locally until the 1950's when it came to M.V. light at localities around Kettering including the outskirts of Weekley Hall Wood.  The moth is particularly subject to cyclical abundance and decline.  For well over half a century it was regarded amongst entomologists as the great prize of Castor Hanglands, but it has not been seen there since 1963.  The last Northamptonshire record was of a singleton at Yardley Chase in 1987.

Other last dated society records:-  Bedford Purlieus (TL09) c1900 (Wallis 1880-) and Geddington Chase (SP98) 1907 (Wallis 1908-10). 

White-spotted Pinion – Cosmia diffinis.   The first record that I have for this species is of a pupa having been dug up near the wood in 1887 (Wallis 1880-).  There are subsequent records from the wood itself from the 1890's (Wallis 1880-) to the 1930's.  The species favours well grown elms and would have found the mature English elm avenues that ran up to the wood an ideal habitat.  These avenues were set out by John, the 2nd Duke of Montagu, known as Planter John, around 1721 (Bellamy 1986) and were devastated in recent times by Dutch elm disease.  The decline of the large elms mirrors the decline of the moth both locally and nationally.

Other last dated society record:-  Stanion (SP98) 1907 (Wallis 1908-10). 


Present State


Although I have visited the wood for much of my life and can well remember going into the keepers cottage, for almost all of this time it has been in its reduced state.  Nowadays, in my opinion it would not compare entomologically with the larger nearby Geddington Chase, I have therefore recorded more at the Chase.  Conditional upon the granting of the original permission for quarrying there was a land restoration clause.  Currently much of the land has been levelled and restored and the change in the composition of the habitat has produced some important new colonizers that reflect in my own field records.   New species have moved into the area and there has been an increase in some of the existing populations.  The planting of Lucerne Medicago sativa for its soil enriching properties along with an abundance of vetches and clovers seems to act as a Mecca for any Clouded Yellows Colias croceus that are in the area.  There is a good colony of the Green Hairstreak Callophrys rubi and both Purple Hairstreak Neozephyrus quercus and White Letter Hairstreak Strymonidia w-album have been seen.  The five species of skipper that now occur, Small Thymelicus sylvestris, Essex Thymelicus lineola, Large Ochlodes venata, Dingy Erynnis tages and Grizzled Pyrgus malvae are usually plentiful.  A single Marbled White Melanargia galathea has been seen, although the species are not known to be breeding on the site.  All the more common butterflies occur and with a tally of around thirty species a season the area remains above average.  The site is particularly good for day flying moths, the large plants of trefoils and vetches support Northamptonshire s largest known colony of Six-belted Clearwing Bembecia scopigera.  The closely related Yellow-legged Clearwing Synanthedon vespiformis is present in the felled oak stumps.  The more common diurnal moths are all present in good numbers and I have seen less common species such as the Grass Rivulet Perizoma albulata and Barred Rivulet Perizoma bifaciata associated with the Yellow Rattle Rhinanthus minor and the Red Bartsia Odontites verna respectively.  The Orange Underwing Archiearis parthenias can be seen flying around the birch trees in the spring.  The Light Feathered Rustic Agrotis cinerea a nationally uncommon moth that occurs on quarried land locally has colonised the area and I have also seen the local White Marked Moth Cerastis leucographa on Sallow bloom inside the woodland. 


It is pleasing to see, that although many of the notable butterflies and moths are no longer present there are at least some compensating species.  Overall however, on reviewing the extensive records for Weekley Hall Wood it is apparent to me that although there were always cycles of abundance and scarcity, most of these lost species have been absent for so many years that they will probably never return.  Despite its physical demise the species loss from the wood is only similar to the losses that have occurred in other local woodlands that have not changed anywhere near as much in the last half century.  In view of this, it is apparent that habitat loss and change can only be contributory factors in the species losses.  Other causes such as fragmentation of colonies, build-up of parasites and climatic change giving rise to extreme conditions have also played their part.  This is well illustrated by Miriam Rothschild in an article in 1975 in which the Chequered Skipper – Carterocephalus palaemon, having previously been common is shown as absent at Ashton Wold in 1964 with a comment,  “Now possibly extinct in England.  This is inexplicable at Ashton where both the food plant and the bugle on which the imago feeds are doing well, and the appropriate clearings maintained” (Rothschild 1975).  A further illustration is perhaps being provided by the current rarity and absence of The Concolorous moth in south and mid Northants in woodlands where it was sometimes abundant but a few years ago.  The large stands of the food plant Calamagrostis still remain.  It follows that habitat conservation and management, although the only part of the remedy that can be effectively tackled, is by itself insufficient to halt and reverse species loss. 


For whatever reason, I am sure that the old recorders would simply not have believed that so many of the insects that they used to see year after year would have permanently disappeared as a feature of the local countryside.




It is difficult for me to know where to start with so many people and so much expertise involved in the assembling of this large record base.  It is apparent however, that in the diligent assembly and meticulous maintenance of the records for over forty years, Arthur Cooper was a major force in this section.  He has a reputation as a fine entomologist and field worker and as a founder member of the society was still attending meetings well into his eighties.  Unlike Eustace Wallis, who had similar knowledge and experience, almost all of Arthur Cooper s material does not seem to have been published.  There were of course other excellent field workers and some of their contributions speak for themselves.  The sheer volume of records submitted by Frank Adams over the years, the finding of the larvae of the Kentish Glory Endromis versicolora  in 1919 at Wakerley Wood by Tommy Mobbs and Frank Thompson s almost 100% rearing of the Heart Moth Dicycla oo from eggs found in crevices in the bark of an oak tree at Little Billing in 1950 to name but a few.  There are so many obvious achievements and items of interest amongst these records that space precludes my covering them all in this article.  Finally, I would like to thank Brian Adams, Gerry Haggett and Martin Payne for their advice on this paper and my wife Brenda, for her constructive suggestions and for doing the computer work involved.




Asher, J., Warren, M., Fox, R., Harding, P., Jeffcoate, G & S., 2001.  The Millennium Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland.  Oxford University Press.

For the English and scientific names of the butterflies.

Bellamy, B., 1986.  Geddington Chase, the History of a Wood.  Nene Litho.

B.R.C.  Biological Records Centre.  Butterfly records provided by The Institute of Terrestial Ecology Biological Records Centre. 

Clark, H., 1842.  Captures near Towcester.  Entomologist 1: 409-410.

Collier, R. V., 1966.  Status of Butterflies on Castor Hanglands, N. N. R. 1961-1965 inclusive.  The Journal of the NorthamptonshireNatural History Society and Field Club 35: 249 and 451-456.

Colston, A. et al 1996.  Northamptonshire s Red Data Book.  The Wildlife Trust for Northamptonshire.

Emmet, A. M., Heath, J., 1990.  The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 7, part 1.  Harley Books.  Also for the sequence of the butterflies.

Heath, J., 1975.  Lepidoptera.  In:  Peterken, G. F. & Welsh, R. C. (Eds).  Bedford Purlieus: its history, ecology and management, pp. 152-153.  Monks Wood Experimental Station Symposium no. 7.

K. & D. N. H. S.,  Kettering and District Natural History Society.  The society was formed in 1905 and the entomological section was formed in 1907.  Record cards and associated archive material were started in 1917 and continued until 1958 and then updated by personal communication with members.  All subsequent quoted records are from these sources unless otherwise stated.

Pilcher, R. E. M., 1961-.  Unpublished paper, The Lepidoptera of Castor Hanglands and Ailsworth Heath 1911-1960.

Rothschild, M., 1975.  The Swallowtail butterfly Papilio machaon britannicus  Seitz in Northamptonshire (and status of some butterflies at Ashton Wold).  Entomologist s Rec. J. Var.  87: 177-179.

Skinner, B., 1998.  Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles (second edition).  Viking.

For the sequence, English and scientific names of the moths.

South, R., 1906.  The Butterflies of the British Isles.  F.Warne.

Sturgess, W., 1857.  Steropes paniscus.  Entomologist s Weekly Intelligencer 2: 124 and 155.

Sturgess, W., 1858.  Captures at Kettering.  Entomologist s Weekly Intelligencer 4: 111.

Sturgess, W., 1859.  Variety of Apature Iris.  Entomologist s Weekly Intelligencer 6: 155.

Tonks, E., 1989.  Ironstone Quarries of the Midlands.  Runpast Publications.

Wallis, E. F., 1880-.  Unpublished records and papers.

Wallis, E. F., 1908-1910.  The Lepidoptera of Northamptonshire.  The Journal of the Northamptonshire Natural History Society 15: 74, 72, 71, 23 and 26.   14: 281, 280, 238 and 276.

Whitwell, J., 1845.  Captures of lepidopterous insects near Peterborough.  Zoologist 845-846.